Periodontal surgical treatment today encompasses a variety of sophisticated plastic surgical procedures. These include techniques to repair and regenerate soft (gingival) and hard (bony) tissues and replacement of missing teeth with dental implants. Procedures are usually performed by a periodontal specialist trained in these techniques and in some cases general dentists who have taken advanced training in periodontal surgery. Most procedures are performed with local anesthesia (numbing of the gum/periodontal tissues and teeth), sometimes with the additional use of oral anti-anxiety/sedation medication or intravenous conscious sedation (twilight sleep).
The objective of surgery is generally to eliminate pockets, regenerate attachment and to create more normal periodontal form, function and esthetics. The goal is to provide an environment more conducive to oral hygiene and maintenance care so that teeth can be kept for a longer period.